Reach Us +44-1477412632
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Non-modifiable risk factors for ischemic stroke

Polikandrioti M*

RN, Msc, Laboratory Instuctor, Nursing Department A, TEI, Athens, Greece

 
Visit for more related articles at Journal of FisheriesSciences.com

Abstract

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in western countries and in the United States, after coronary diseases and cancer. World-wide is the second leading cause of death causing 10% of deaths. Furthermore, stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and functional impairments. Each type of ischemic stroke is related to high rates of morbidity and mortality.

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in western countries and in the United States, after coronary diseases and cancer. World-wide is the second leading cause of death causing 10% of deaths. Furthermore, stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and functional impairments. Each type of ischemic stroke is related to high rates of morbidity and mortality.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980, stroke is defined as “rapidly developing clinical signs of focal (at times global) disturbance of cerebral function, lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death with no apparent cause other than that of vascular origin”.

This phenomenon of sudden paralysis, which was firstly described by Hippocrates as apoplexy. Nowadays is also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA). 3,4,5

The etiology of stroke is multifactorial as the interaction of many risk factors seems to be accountable for the development of this clinical syndrome. The risk factors or risk markers are classified according to their potential for modification into non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. According to the vast majority of literature, non modifiable risk factors include age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family history. These factors increase the risk of stroke especially when other modifiable risk factors, re-occur. 3,4,5

Age : It is widely accepted that stroke increases dramatically with age and it is more likely to affect the elderly. The risk doubles after the age of 55 years old to each successive decade. The majority of strokes Age : It is widely accepted that stroke increases dramatically with age and it is more likely to affect the elderly. The risk doubles after the age of 55 years old to each successive decade. The majority of strokes

Race/ethnicity : Higher stroke rates are noted in African Americans, Hispanic Americans and the black race compared to the White one. Many researchers have suggested that this higher incidence is attributed to other co-existing risk factors in these races, such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Higher prevalence of stroke is also noted in the Chinese and Japanese population. 1,5,6

Family history of stroke : Family history of both parents may be related to increased stroke risk. Genetic predisposition has been documented in humans and studies have shown that monozygotic twins have a 5-fold increase in stroke incidence compared to dizygotic twins. Moreover, the common familial exposure to environmental or lifestyle risks significantly contributes to the development of this genetic tendency for stroke. 1,5,6

Taken for granted that treatment after stroke is still limited, the ultimate goal of current stroke therapy is prevention. Although non-modifiable risk factors can not change, their assessment enables health professionals to identify individuals of high risk.

References

Goldstein L., Adams R., Becker K., Furberg C., Gorelick Ph., Hademenos G., et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke. Circulation. 2001;103:163-182.

Braunwald E., Fauci A., Kasper D., Hauser S., Longo D., Jameson J. Principles of Internal Medicine. Harrison’s 15th edition. 2001.

Bartels M. Pathophysiology and Medical Management of Stroke.In Stroke Rehabilitation, A Functional Based Approach. Glen Gillen and Ann Burkhart (Eds).Ed. Mosby Publishers. 1998.

Warlow C. Epidemiology of stroke. Lancet. 1998;352:1-4.

Warlow CP., Dennis MS., Gijin J., Hankey GJ., Sandercock P.A.G, Bamford J.M, Wardlaw J. Stroke. A practical guide to management.Blackwell Science.London. 1996.

Caplan L. Caplan’s Stroke: A clinical Approach. Butterworth-Heineman, 2000

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Viewing options

Post your comment

Share This Article

Flyer image
journal indexing image
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh