We surveyed the fish farmers of five states, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Odisha and West Bengal of India for adaptation and mitigation strategies of climate change impact in freshwater aquaculture. In monsoon period especially when the cyclone occurred, overall 9% fish farmers responded regarding fish migration from one pond to another pond. Sometimes entire stocks washed out due to heavy floods. Overall 23% farmers responded about water quality deterioration and contamination due to unforeseen weather conditions mostly during rainy and summer seasons. Disease incidences during the winter seasons especially Argulus infestation was reported by 42% respondent. About 37% farmers in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Odisha expressed that farming systems were damaged and lost all the fishes because of extreme events like flood, cyclone etc. They also reported that all operational cost increased every time in re-construction of ponds due to floods. The farmers tried to mitigate some of the problems encountered due to climate change. Overall, 43% of farmers are pumping freshwater to cool down the temperature of fish culture ponds. Some farmers applied oxygen tablets during higher summer. When there is low rain fall, 60% farmers maintain water level by pumping in water from their bore well. While 75% farmers never experienced any disease problem, 25% reported such incidence, among them 50% apply lime in case of appearance of disease symptoms. In case of drought, 25% of the farmers reported that they have made early harvest, irrespective of the fish growth, others never stock the ponds. In case of flood, 48% of farmers used to prevent fish escape by using mesh like structures in pond bunds to prevent fish escape, while 16% pump out water using their pumps.
Adhikari S, Chaudhury Ajit Keshav, Gangadhar Barlaya, Ramesh Rathod, Mandal RN, Sarosh Ikmail, Saha GS, De HK, Sivaraman I, Mahapatra AS, Sarkar S, Routray P, Bindu R. Pillai and Sundaray JK