Received date: 18 November 2013 Accepted date: 26 March 2014 Published date: 07 August 2014
This study was carried out to determine some spermatological parameters and hematological characteristics of the B. grypus (H, 1843) in the spawning season. Investigation was performed using 20 B. grypus males captured from Atatürk Dam Lake. Milt and blood samples were col-lected and evaluated daily in sampling day. In collected milt, the mean values of milt volume (μL), the percentage of motile spermatozoa (%), duration of motility (s), spermatozoa concen-tration (x109/mL) and pH were 886.00 ±78.76, 71.25 ±4.56, 115.10 ±6.19, 10.61 ±1.67 and 8.13 ±0.45, respectively. The blood parameters of B. grypus males were 30.01 ±4.11, 2.05±0.07, 7.72 ±0.11, 147.27 ±4.93, 38.98 ±2.61, 26.47 ±0.84 and 29.45 ±0.75 for WBC (x103/mm3), RBC (x106/mm3), Hb (g/dl), MCV (μm3), MCH (pg), MCHC (%) and PCV (%), respectively. Milt volumes in 8 year old fish were significantly higher than those in 5, 6 and 7 year old individuals (P
Barbus grypus, Shabbout, Sperm, Blood
The shabbout, Barbus grypus (H, 1843) is one of the most important fishes of Cyprinidae that widely distributed in the Euphrates and Ti-gris Rivers in Turkey, Iran, Syria and Iraq (Kuru, 1979; Coad, 1996). Barbus grypus is a vagile species that prefers rivers but is also found in estuaries. It is commercially fished and can reach nearly two meters and over 50 kg (Coad, 1996). Its growth, sexual maturity characteristics, and reproductive biology have been studied (Al-Hakim et al., 1981; Pyka et al., 2001). Spawning generally occurs from May to mid June (Geldiay and Balik, 1988). The spawned eggs are scattered above aquatic plants and cling to the vegetation (Geldiay and Balik, 1988). Also, the aquaculture industry in Turkey is continually evaluating new candidates and systems to diversify its produc-tion as effectively as possible. Therefore, it seems necessary to study about reproduction of B. grypus in order to provide knowledge for de-velopment of aquaculture.
Gamete quality is especially important in the examination of the male reproductive system. Evaluating their biological quality is significant particularly with regard to culture programs for commercially important species. Artificially reproducing these fish species and culturing them under controlled conditions might be a successful method for preventing populations from becom-ing extinct. The availability of semen with de-sirable quality is one of the critical factors nec-essary to increase the efficiency of artificial ferti-lization of fish species (Rurangwa et al., 2004). The use of high quality gametes from captive fish broodstock is of great importance for ensur-ing the production of valuable offspring for aq-uaculture (Bromage and Roberts, 1995). Sperm quality of male broodstock affects the production of healthy larvae.
Another biomarker used in diagnoses is the hematological profile. For intensive rearing of fish with minimal losses, it is necessary to be aware of the health status of fish. Blood varia-bles are useful criteria for showing physiologi-cal disturbances in intensively farmed fishes and can provide important information for di-agnosis and prognosis of diseases. Dawson (1979) stated that hematology an important tool to study the speed and effect of the toxins with-out killing the animals. The changes in the fish blood prior to the onset of more striking mor-phological and physiological changes can be indicative of unfavourable aquatic medium (Eisler, 1967). For example, qualitative and quantitative variations in hematological pa-rameters including the red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) numbers, hemato-crit (HCT, also known as packed cell vol-ume (PCV)), the amount of hemoglobin (Hb) are the most significant findings as regards di-agnosis (Şahan et al., 2007). Although com-parison of spermatological and hematological properties of some fish species have been stud-ied in few studies (Imanpoor and Farahi, 2011), there are no available data on B. grypus in Ata-türk Dam Lake in Southeastern Turkey.
Former studies showed that fish age influ-ences quality of gametes such as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Schmidt-Baulain and Holtz, 1991), striped bass Morone saxatilis (Vuthiphandchai and Zohar, 1999), turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Suquet et al., 1998) and koi carp ornamental carp, (Mordenti et al., 2003).
Despite the commercial and conservation im-portance of the species, information for sperma-tological and hematological parameters and its relationships between them in Barbus grypus is scarce. The aim of the present study is to evalu-ate the effect of age on gamet quality and heama-tological parameters. And also, to try establish-ing if there is any correlation between parame-ters of the spermatological and hematological characteristics
Broodstocks and Samples Preparation
The fish were caught with gill nets (45 mm x 45 mm and 55 mm x 55 mm) at 5th June in Ataturk Dam Lake (37°23’29’’03’’’N, 38°34’38’’05’’’E) in 2012. During the study, physico-chemical parameters of the sampling ar-eas were measured with YSI Environmental (YSI 85). Samples obtained were moved to the laboratories of Harran University Bozova Voca-tional School. The scales and otholiths were ex-amined under a stereomicroscope for age de-termination (Nikon SMZ 2Tstereo) (Baker and Timmons, 1991).
The fish caught were grouped by age into four different groups. The milt was taken from 20 fish in 4 groups; 7 in the first group (age 5), 6 in the second group (age 6), 4 in the third group (age 7) and 3 in the fourth group (8 years) re-spectively.
After cleaning the genital area with fresh wa-ter and thoroughly drying to avoid contamination of samples with faeces, urine and lakewater, milt was collected in a graduated tube after applying gentle abdominal pressure to unanesthetised males. After collections, milt samples were transported to the laboratory under cold condi-tions (7–10 °C). In collected milt; sperm volume (μL), spermatozoa motility (%), duration of spermatozoa motility (s), spermatozoa concen-tration (x109/mL) and sperm pH were deter-mined.
Milt volume was determined by the measur-ing pipette and expressed as μL. Motility was as-sessed by a procedure similar to that of Aas et al. (1991) and expressed as a percentage of motile spermatozoa. Briefly, ten seconds after acti-vation, sperm motility was evaluated under a light microscope by placing a 10 μL drop of di-luted semen (5 μL of milt was mixed with 5 mL of activating solution in a tube) on a slide cov-ered with a glass coverslip (22 mm x 22 mm). An activation solution, 0.3% NaCl was used for estimating motility rate. Motility evaluation was performed by focusing the binocular light micro-scope at the centre of the coverslip at 400x mag-nification at 25°C. The motility rate was deter-mined visually by estimating the proportion of motile and non-motile cells, in triplicate. The du-ration of sperm motility was subjectively evalu-ated as the time elapsed from activation until 5% of the spermatozoa maintained forward swim-ming activity. Sperm motility observations were done at room temperature (25°C). Same person conducted all the sperm motility observations, in order to decrease the degree of variation among observers. Spermatozoa concentration was de-termined by using haemocytometer and ex-pressed as x109/mL. Milt was first diluted in a 10-mL test tube by adding 10 μL of milt to 9990 μL of a distilled well water and then mixed on a vortex mixer, and counting the number of milt cells in a known haemacytometer volume (Tho-ma chamber, American Opticals, Buffalo, NY) viewed with a light microscope (Tvedt et al., 2001). The pH of whole milt was measured in triplicate on freshly collected milt using pH indi-cator strips (pH: 0–14; Merck, Germany) with checked by Model GLP 21 pH meter (Crison, Barcelona).
In this study, the blood samples were taken by cut off caudal vein method into 2 mL vaca-tioner tube containing heparin sodium shook for two minutes gently and stored in refrigerator pri-or to hematological analysis. After collections, blood samples were transported to the laboratory under cold conditions (7–10°C). The indices used to evaluate the hematological profile were included; hematological parameters; White Blood Cell (WBC) (x103/mm3), Red Blood Cell (RBC) (x106/mm3), Hemoglobin (Hb) (g/dl), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) (μm3), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) (pg), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) (%) and Hematocrit (PCV) (%) were determined (Houston, 1990).
Statistical data was conducted using SPSS 10.0.1 (SPSS Inc. 1999). Descriptive analysis was carried out to determine mean and standard error on milt volume, sperm motility percentage, duration of sperm motility, sperm concentration, milt pH and blood parameters used in the present study during spawning season. All values are ex-pressed as mean ± standard error (S.E.M.). The correlation between spermatological characteris-tics and blood parameters were analyzed using the bi variate correlation coefficients of Pearson (SPSS, ver. 10.05; SPSS, Chicago, IL). Statisti-cal comparisons of sperm and blood traits were done by using One way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test as appropriate. Significance was taken at P<0.05.
The values of mean water temperatures were 22.70 ±1.80 °C, while dissolved oxygen and pH were 8.72 ±0.40 mg/l and 8.45±0.20 respective-ly. Mean weight and length of the captured twen-ty fish were 3120.33 ±90.37 g and 69.73 ±4.92 cm respectively. The ages of the samples ranged between 5 to 8 year. Also, the total weight (TW) and total length (TL) of B. grypus are shown in Table 1. Overall mean values of some milt prop-erties and blood parameters in B. grypus in the spawning season are presented in the Table 1 and 2. 115.10 ±6.19 s, 10.61 ±1.67 x109/mL and 8.13 ±0.45, respectively.
The semen volume of 8-year-old fish (1217.33 μL), were determined significantly higher with respect to the fish aged between; 5-7 (720.71-1013.50 μL) (P<0.01). The average total weight and total length of the fish caught were determined as 3120.33 ±90.37 g and 69.73 ± 4.92 cm, respectively.
It was found that age has significant effects on total weight (P<0.001) and total length (P<0.01). Total weight (3833.33 g) and length (79.33 cm) of 8-year-old fish were determined higher than the total weight (2714.28-3050.00 g) and length (66.85-70.25 cm) of 5 to 7-years-old fish.
The blood parameters of B. grypus males were 30.01 ±4.11 x103/mm3, 2.05 ±0.07 x106/mm3, 7.72 ±0.11 g/dl, 147.27 ±4.93 μm3, 38.98 ±2.61 pg, 26.47 ±0.84 % and 29.45 ±0.75 for WBC, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC and PCV, re-spectively.
The effect of age on the PCV were determined significant (P<0.05). The highest PCV (29.45%) was found at 8-year-old fish. PCV in the age group of fish at 5, 6 and 7- years- old was 28.28, 28.16 and 29.75% respectively and was found similar.
Relationships among sperm characteristics and blood parameters were determined in Table 3. In sperm parameters, a positive relationships (r=0.543, P<0.05) were detected between milt volume and the percentage of motile spermatozoa and also, the sperm pH and spermatozoa concen-tration (r=0.472, P<0.05). In hematological pa-rameters, the highest correlation coefficients be-tween PCV and MCHC (r= -0.705, P<0.01); Hb and MCHC (r=0.682, P<0.01); Hb and WBC (r= -0.755, P<0.01); RBC and MCV (r= -0.876 P<0.01); RBC and MHC (r= -0.837, P<0.01) and MCV and MCH (r= 0.822, P<0.01).
And also, the correlation between some sperma-tological and hematological parameters of B. grypus are shown in Table 3. A negative rela-tionship was found only between the percentage of motile spermatozoa and RBC (r=-0.45, P<0.05).
The study was carried out to determine some spermatological parameters and hematological characteristics of the Shabbout. Milt volume is one of the important characteristics of the fish sperm. The mean values of fish milt volume caught in Atatürk Dam Lake were 886.00 ±78.76 μL (Table 1). Policar et al. (2011) reported that the milt volume of the B. barbus was 150 ±40.00 -420.00 ±80.00 μL. The milt volume of this study was found higher than Policar et al. (2011). On the contrary, the finding in present study is lower that reported between 5000-20000 μL in different Cyprinidae species (like C. carpio, C. idella etc.) (Horvath and Lukowicz, 1982). The milt volume in males affected from both the spawning period and day light changes during the spawning period (Campos-Mendoza et al., 2004).
In our study, 8-years-old males showed higher milt volume (1217.33 ±183.23 μL) than in 5, 6 and 7 –years-old individuals (P>0.01). In addi-tion, The semen volume of the samples were measured for 5, 6 and 7 -year-old samples as 720.71 ±60.88 μL, 829.83 ±44.24 μL and 1013.50 ±93.04 μL, respectively. This situation shows that age had a significant effect on semen volume. Similarly, Tekin et al (2003) reported that based on increasing age the semen volume increased significantly. Also, Rahbar et al (2012) stated that because of older fish have larger tes-tes; the production of sperm volume will in-crease.
In this study, the average spermatozoa motil-ity of B. grypus sperm was determined as 71.25 ±4.56 % (Table1). Similarly, the mean sperma-tozoa motility at B. aeneus which is one of the different Barbus species was reported 65 ±8.95 % (Vlok and Van Vuren, 1988) and is similar to Carassius gibelio as 79 ±3.0 % (Taati et al., 2011). Verma et al. (2009) reported spermatozoa motility of some fish species like Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Labeo calbasu, Cirrhinus mrigala, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Cte-nopharyngodon idella that belongs to Cyprinidae as 90 ±1.50 %, 90 ±2.30 %, 92 ±1.40 %, 88 ±30 %, 93 ±1.70 % and 89 ±3.20 % respectively. The spermatozoa motility of this study was found lower than the previous studies. The low sperma-tozoa motility in present study could be explained by differences among the species, environment, spawning season (Büyükhatipoğlu and Holtz, 1984). Because, spermatozoa motility can change among different fishes that belong to same spe-cies (Honeyfield and Krise, 2000). There were no significant differences observed in spermatozoa motility based on age.
In this study, mean duration of motility in B. grypus was found to be 115.10±6.19 s (Table1). Verma et al. (2009) reported mean duration of motility that some Cyprinidae species like Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella as 80±4.50 s, 90±5.50 s, 75±3.50 s and 85±2.50 s, respectively. Also, Taati et al. (2011) found that mean duration of motility in C. gibelio was 33.63±4.03 s. Our results were found higher than those values. The high duration of motility in the present study could be explained by the differences between two species, dilution types, and the high rates of immature spermatozoa in milt (Zhukinskiy and Alekseenko, 1983). Besides, mean duration of motility of B. grypus was found similar with both Labeo calbasu (110 ±5.00 s) and Cirrhinus mrigala (115.10 ±6.19 s) (Verma et al., 2009). When the average duration of spermatozoa motil-ity of the fish caught was analyzed, the duration of spermatozoa motility was not statistically sig-nificant despite the slight increase depends on age.
The concentration of spermatozoa was 10.61 ±1.67 x109/mL in this study (Table 1). Alavi et al. (2008-10) reported that the spermatozoa con-centration of B. sharpeyi and B. barbus were 9.8x109/mL and 12.5x109/mL, respectively. Pol-icar et al. (2011) reported the spermatozoa con-centration in B. barbus as 11.8 ±0.9 x109/mL. Similarly, Vlok and Van Vuren (1988) reported the spermatozoa concentration of B. aeneus as 11.8 ±0.9 x109/mL. Büyükhatipoğlu and Holtz (1984) stated that spermatozoa concentration could be decreased from the beginning to end of the spawning season. In this study, statistically significant change was not observed on sperma-tozoa concentration value of the samples depends on the age obtained.
The semen pH (Table1) in B. grypus was found as 8.13 ±0.45 in the present study. The se-men pH values of Catla catla, Labeo calbasu, Cirrhinus mrigala, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella were found as 7.8 ±0.07, 7.9 ±0.05, 8.1 ±0.09, 7.8 ±0.03 and 7.9 ±0.06, respectively (Verma et al., 2009). Our re-sults were similar to those values, but higher than Labeo rohita (7.3 ±0.06) (Verma et al., 2009). These high values could be due to the physico-chemical structure of oligotrophic Atatürk Dam Lake that is slightly alkaline. This could be caused of the similarity of the sperm pH of freshwater fish and the pH of the water that fish live in (Suquet et al., 1993). Statistically signifi-cant change was not observed on spermatozoa pH value of the samples depends on the age obtained in this study
Overall mean values of some hematological parameters of B. grypus in the spawning season are presented in the Table 2. The WBC values of our study (30.01 ±4.11 x103/mm3) were higher than the reported values of Örün and ErdemLi (2002) in C. trutta (17.65 ±2.15 x103/mm3), Ay-dın et al. (1998) in S. glanis (17.00 ±1.29 x103/mm3), Yavuzcan et al. (1997) in Oreo-chromis niloticus (7.02 ±0.99 x103/mm3), Gbore et al. (2006) in T. zilli (1.29 ±0.12 x103/mm3) and in C. gariepinus (1.80 ±0.85 x103/mm3). Besides, The data of WBC of B. grypus were found lower than the reported values of Aydın et al. (1998) in C. lazera (35.00 ±3.48 x103/mm3), Groff and Zinki (1999) in C. carpio (37.8 ±2.88 x103/mm3) and C. auratus (52.3 ±4.88 x103/mm3). These dif-ferent values from previous studies may be as a response of the immune system against infectious agents. To learn the reason we need to more data about to this fish species. But, increase at the leu-kocyte count could be result of the increasing macrophages and other phagocytic cells which is a key element of the immune system (Misra et al., 2006).
The RBC values were found as 2.05±0.07 x106/mm3.On the contrary of our data, Talal et al. (2011) reported that the RBC values of B. xan-thopterus and B. sharpeyi as 3.45±0.77 and 3.55±0. 52 x106/mm3, respectively. If the RBC values of different fish species that belongs to same family are examined, it is seen that Groff and Zinkl (1999) reported the values of C. carpio ve C. trutta as 1.67 ±0.08 x106/mm3 and 1.61 ±0.81 x106/mm3, respectively. Similarly, former researchers stated that RBC values as 1.10 ±0.51 x106/mm3, 1.26 ±0.87 x106/mm3, 1.13 ±0.25 x106/mm3, 1.10 ±0.14 x106/mm3 and 0.73 ±0.02 x106/mm3 in C. trutta, S. glanis, C. lazera, O. ni-loticus, T. zillii and C. gariepinus, respectively (Örün and ErdemLi, 2002; Aydın et al., 1998; Yavuzcan et al., 1997; Gbore et al., 2006). Khadjeh et al. (2010) reported the RBC values in shabout as 1.41 ±0.04 x106/mm3. Our RBC val-ues were found higher than these reported values. RBC value tends to increase with age of the fish-es (Das 1965). The RBC values of male fish did not show increase based on age in our study. RBC values were significantly higher in 7- and 8-years-old Beluga (Huso huso L., 1758) than those in 4 and 6-years-old Akrami et al. (2013). The RBC values of Shabbout could change depending on environment, infection and physiological ac-tivity (Brenden and Huizinga, 1986). The RBC values were not statistically significant despite the increase depends on age. The elevated RBC counts are a response to the higher metabolic demand and have no impact on erythrocyte vol-ume (Satheeshkumar et al., 2011). The increased number of RBC indicates oxygen demand in the tropical region to meet the higher oxygen re-quirement at higher metabolic rates (Engel and Davis 1964).
In this study, the Hemoglobin (Hb) values of B. grypus sperm were 7.72±0.11 g/dl. Similarly, Khadjeh et al. (2010) reported the Hb in B. grypus as 6.50 ±0.10 g/dl. Talal et al. (2011) re-ported the Hb in B. xanthopterus and B. sharpeyi as 5.18 ±0.22 g/dl and 5.32 ±0.43 g/dl respective-ly. The similar Hb values were reported for dif-ferent Cyprinidae species like C. carpio (8.20 ±0.36 g/dl), C. trutta (7.90 ±0.24 g/dl), S. glanis (9.02 ±0.13 g/dl), C. lazera (9.35 ±0.34 g/dl), O. niloticus (7.72 ±0.21 g/dl) and T. zilli (6.60 ±0.14 g/dl) (Örün and ErdemLi, 2002; Aydın et al. 1998; Yavuzcan et al. 1997; Gbore et al. 2006). Hemoglobin content of erythrocytes was associ-ated with the volume and the development of RBCs. The effect of age on hemoglobin was de-termined insignificant. However, Das (1965) re-ported that Hb value tend to increase with the age of the fishes. Hrubec et al. (2001) reported that levels of hemoglobin increased with increasing age. Environmental factors and genetic factors could have affected the development of erythro-cytes (Houston, 1990).
The MCV values of B. grypus caught in Ata-türk Dam Lake were found as 147.27 ±4.93 μm3. We found similar results with C. auratus (137 ±2.60 μm3) and C. trutta (149.71 ±2.28 μm3). But, Khadjeh et al. (2010) found higher (261 ±4.87 μm3) MCV values in same species. And also, higher MCV values were reported for dif-ferent Cyprinidae species like C. carpio (202 ±5.50 μm3), S. glanis (249.60 ±10.10 μm3), C. lazera (258.70 ±19.80 μm3), O. niloticus (234.67 ±8.22 μm3) and C. gariepinus (200.93 ±0.31 μm3) (Groff and Zinkl, 1999; Örün and ErdemLi, 2002; Aydın et al., 1998; Yavuzcan et al., 1997; Gbore et al., 2006).
The MCH values of B. grypus were found as 38.98 ±2.61 pg in this study. Similar values were reported in B. grypus (45.70 ±0.88 pg), C. trutta (45.40 ±1.80 pg), C. carpio (49.10 pg), C. au-ratus (42.00 ±1.40 pg), T. zilli (46.48 ±2.49 pg) and C. gariepinus (51.39 ±0.04) (Khadjeh et al., 2010; Örün and ErdemLi, 2002; Grof and Zinki, 1999; Gbore et al., 2006). Aydın et al. (1998) in S. glanis (86.49 ±5.01 pg) and in C. lazera (83.52 ±2.85 pg) and also Yavuzcan et al. (1997) in O. niloticus (65.45 ±2.10 pg) were found higher val-ues than this study.
The MCHC values of B. grypus were calcu-lated as 26.47±0.84 % in this study. The MCHC values in Cyprinidae species like C. trutta, S. glanis, C. lazera, O. niloticus and T. zillii were reported as 30.32 ±0.80 %, 30.66 ±0.49 %, 31.20 ±0.85 %, 31.00 ±0.01 % and 33.14 ±1.88 % re-spectively (Örün and ErdemLi, 2002; Aydın et al., 1998; Yavuzcan et al., 1997; Gbore et al., 2006). But, both Khadjeh et al. (2010) (17.6 ±0.27 %) and Gbore et al. (2006) in C. gariepi-nus (15.87 ±0.03 %) were reported lower values than our results in B. grypus. The decreased MCV can be the sign for a defect in the matura-tion of erythrocytes (Kumar et al., 2013). The fluctuation of MCH and MCHC could be due to the change of the hemoglobin concentration of RBCs in infected fishes (Wepener et al., 1992).
The effect of the age on MCV, MCH and MCHC was observed insignificant at shabout fish.
In this study, mean PCV values of B. grypus blood were 29.45 ±0.75 %. These values of B. grypus were similar with Khadjeh et al (2010) (36.9 ±0.7 %). In addition, the obtained PCV re-sults within the limits of the former researchers reported studies in different Cyprinidae species like C. carpio (33.4±1.51 %), C. auratus (22.3 ±1.04 %), C. trutta (26.05 ±2.38 %) S. glanis (29.75 ±0.45 %), C. lazera (33.42 ±1.27 %), O. niloticus (25.27 ±0.67 %), T. zillii (20.07 ±0.07 %) and C. gariepinus (20.78 ±0.02 %) (Grof and Zinki, 1999; Örün and ErdemLi, 2002; Aydın et al., 1998; Yavuzcan et al., 1997; Gbore et al., 2006). But, Talal (2011) in B. xanthopterus (36.9 ±0.70) and in B. sharpeyi (40.56 ±3.55 %) were reported higher values than our results. PCV con-centration of infected fishes decreases according to destruction of RBC (Haney et al., 1992). These differences between PCV values could be ex-plained with the species differences and the envi-ronmental infectious factors.
PCV values of male fish at 8-years-old were observed significantly higher (P<0.05). The in-crease in the PCV values may have resulted from the increase the weight of the fish. Similarly, PCV values were significantly higher in 7- and 8-years-old Beluga, than those in 4 and 6-years-old (Akrami et al., 2013). Also, Preston (1960) con-cluded that an increase in the PCV values in flounder (Plouronectes platessa L., 1758) with the increase in weight . Besides, Hrubec et al. (2001) reported that levels of hematocrit in-creased with increasing age.
According to the study, we found positive cor-relation between milt volume and spermatozoa motility, and also sperm pH and spermatozoa concentration. Similarly, former researchers re-ported that there was a positive correlation be-tween total spermatozoa motility and milt volume in C. gariepinus (Adewumi et al., 2005).
The hematological characteristics of B. grypus caught in Atatürk Dam Lake, the highest correla-tion coefficient were found in PVC and MCHC (r=-0.705, P<0.01); Hb and MCHC (r=0.682, P<0.01); Hb and WBC (r=-0.755, P<0.01); RBC and MCV (r=-0.876, P<0.01); RBC and MHC (r=-0.837, P<0.01); MCV and MCH (r= 0.822, P<0.01). Similarly, the negative correlation re-sults of our study (RBC and MCV, r=-0.876 and RBC and MHC, r=-0.837), Akrami et al. (2013) reported same correlations in Beluga on RBC and MCV (r=-0.489; P<0.002), RBC and MHC (r=-0.465; P<0.001), MCV and MCH (r= 0.373, P<0.01). These researchers reported that the sig-nificant negative correlations between RBC, MCV and MCH could be argumentative.
The relationship between milt characteristics and blood parameters analyzed, only a significant correlation was found. There were negative cor-relation between spermatozoa motility and RBC values (r=-0.452, P<0.05). The factors that cause RBC to increase like high metabolic demand (Satheeshkumar et al., 2011), oxygen demand (Engel and Davis, 1964), environment, infection and physiological activity (Brenden and Huizinga, 1986) may have effect on spermatozoa motility.
The result of a previous study shown with in-creased a temperature RBC level in-creased. When temperature increased, activity of oxygen absorbing by RBC was reducing, thus body for compensation with the high number of RBC in blood (Bozorgnia et al., 2011). The spermatozoa motility of Siberian sturgeon (A. baeri), were significantly higher at 10°C (culture temperature) and the lowest at high temperature (17.5°C) (Williot et al., 2000).
In conclusion, this study is the first report for male B. grypus that include investigations of hematological parameters and milt characteristics in Atatürk Dam Lake. These results represent a valuable baseline dataset and provide background information in these species that has great aqua-culture potential.
The sperm mixture of fish at different ages can be used as a simple procedure to achieve better results of fertilization capacity. The results of this study can be used in artificial breeding programs to produce suitable larvae for breeding and reproduction.